It's Not Just Apiaries
The climate crisis, livestock grazing, and management of roads, recreation and mining on public lands all contribute to loss of native bee habitat, pollen, nectar, and native flowers - and thus the loss of native bees.
& Native Bees
Drought and heat in particular reduce the production of flowers, pollen, and nectar.
Cattle, sheep, and goats (as well as wild ungulates such as elk, deer, and mountain goats) consume the flowers of herbaceous plants and shrubs that provide pollen and nectar. The greater the number of ungulates, the greater the consumption.
All activities that displace or damage habitat for flowers reduce the availability of nectar, pollen, and nesting sites for native bees.
Many pesticides stress, debilitate, or kill bees. Nicotinoid insecticides are among those posing the greatest threats to native bees as well as honey bees.